As a general guideline, I like to double grits, ie 24 60 120 220 500 1k 2k 4k 8k 16k 32k 64k 128k, etc. Yes those aren't precisely double but you get the general idea.
For very abrasion resistant steels, you could go in even smaller jumps, but for softer steels - eg European knives, much larger jumps are appropriate. In the extreme, going from a 180 bamboo to a 2k stone is not unreasonable for real soft knives, leaving a bit of toothiness in the process. I also go in smaller increments with single bevel knives just because you are abrading more metal.
There is the issue of convenience. For Glassstones or other splash and go level synthetic stones, small jumps are particularly appropriate, whereas if you have to soak a lot of stones from scratch, I would tend to get lazy and use less stones. I am not a big fan of going from a 1k to 6k stone.
Also if you own say a 1k 1500 and 2k stone, you can select which ones you use for a given knife based on the condition of the edge, but using all three is excessive IMO.
For naturals , the spread can be much greater as any given stone can be used to start off coarse and refine itself during the session, so for instance a 3 stone sequence isn't unreasonable, but you can ( and I often do) go with more.
Because part of my work involves evaluating stones as well as sharpening knives, it is rare that any two knives get the same sequence of stones. So for instance, I might triple my jumps 120 320 1k on a softer knife or use a 180 and a 220 in sequence if I find I just need a bit more abrasion from some scratches rather than jump to a 500.
It comes down to experience, preferences, the need to explore, etc. In the end you develop your own guidelines and change them with experience. One of the things I love about the Nubatama series is the ability to fine tune a sequence to your needs, with Shapton and Chocera being a close second and third
One oddity does come to mind. I often recommend a 150 bamboo with a 140 Atoma. 10 'points' worth of difference? Why bother? Well because diamonds and waterstones 'scratch' different and you are going to have problems jumping from a 140 Atoma to say a 1k stone, but jumping from a 150 bamboo to a 1k finish is reasonable for a somewhat softer steel. For a harder steel a 400 is a reasonable 'inbetween'.