Here is my understanding the words, as they applied to kitchen knives (some words have a slightly different meanings when applied to other fields like metalworks) :
Sharpening - To remove metal to form a cutting edge. I believe it is closer to "afiar", whereas "amolar" is closer to grind. (An extrapolation from my sad understanding of French, that has similar words.) Both "Sharpening" and "Grind" can be use to mean forming an edge, but "Sharpening" is more specific to meaning only forming an edge, where "Grind" can mean shaping the material.
Strop - Lightly refining/polishing the edge on smooth material with edge trailing stroke.
Honing - Light maintenance sharpening.
Honing for Japanese knives, since they're usually harder and maintain their edge longer, are usually done with light stropping motion on higher grit whetstone. For western knives, though they also can be honed on a whetstone, they are often done on a "honing" steel or ceramic rods or diamond rods. "Honing" steel does not actually hone, meaning lightly sharpening. They realign the bent/deformed edges of the softer steel. When using ceramic or diamond rods (called rods because they're not actually made of steel, though look similar in shape,) the knives are honed, i. e. they do remove some steel...they sharpen.
I hope this helps....and not creating more confusion